6th International Geothermal Conference: Future of Low and Medium Enthalpy Geothermal Energy in India on 5th and 6th January 2022
Total Depth: 500ft
Surface Temperature: 67oC
Flow Rate: 14 l/sec
WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY?
The word Geothermal is derived from two Greek words “Geo” which means ‘Earth’ and “Thermo” which means ‘Heat’. Thus, geothermal energy is the internal heat of the earth. It is a clean and sustainable source of energy. The geothermal resources are found in the ranges from low-to-high enthalpy resources. They are manifested on the surface in three forms hot springs, fumaroles and geysers.The amount of heat within 10,000 meters of earth’s surface is 50,000 times more energy than all the oil and natural gas resources in the world.
Geothermal energy is being used for direct as well as indirect uses for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose. The countries like Iceland, Indonesia,Mexico, Philippines, New Zealand, Iceland, California (US) are highly active in the field of exploration and exploitation of Geothermal energy. However, in India, the potential Geothermal Energy has not yet been tapped. Puga Valley (Jammu and Kashmir), Tatapani (Chhattisgarh), Chamoli (Uttarakhand), and Bakreshwar (West Bengal) have been looked upon as the potential geothermal reservoirs till date. But, as per the studies conducted by Geological Survey of India (GSI), Gujarat also has a potential of geothermal energy, which is yet to be explored.
In order to put Gujarat on unconventional energy basket in India, GoG took an initiative of establishing a centre dedicated to research & development activities in the area of exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy. In this light, with the support of GoG, PDEU established Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE) on 10th of October, 2013. For smooth functioning of the centre, PDEU faculties took a lead and started developmental activities for the centre. With time, research professionals were also inducted into the centre in order to fulfil the aspirations of GoG as well as the centre.
Initial CEGE Core Committee Members:
- Dr. Bijaya K. Behera - Head CEGE & Faculty, SPT, PDEU
- Dr. Anirbid Sircar – Principal Research Scientist, PDEU
- Dr. Surendra Singh Kachhwaha - Principal Research Scientist & Faculty, SOT, PDEU
- Mr. Vinay Babu – Research Scientist & Faculty, SPT, PDEU
- Dr. Bijaya K. Behera and Mr. Vinay Babu left PDEU in July 2014.
In August 2014, Dr. Anirbid Sircar was appointed as Head CEGE and Ms Shreya Sahajpal was appointed as a coordinator. CEGE has involved in various projects like 2D Magnetotellurics, Gravity, Magnetic and Seismic surveys at Dholera, Unai and Gandhar. CEGE team has carried out pioneer projects like 3D Magnetotelluric Survey at Unai and Installation, Fabrication and Commissioning of Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling System at Dholera. In December 2016, Ms Shreya Sahajpal left the organization and will be continuing as the Geothermal Expert.
The current CEGE Team Members:
- Dr. Anirbid Sircar - Head- CEGE & Prof. SPT, PDEU
- Dr. Kriti Yadav - Coordinator
- Ms. Namrata Bist - Research Scientist
- Mr. Dharmesh Morabiya - Field Engineer
- Ms. Surbhi Singh - Project Assistant
- Mr. Hitenkumar Bhatt - Research Assistant
- Mr. Abhishek Nair - Research Assistant
- Mr. Deep Maru - Research Assistant
- Ms. Krishna Solanki - Research Assistant
Members of CEGE
|Dr. Anirbid Sircar
Head (CEGE), PDEU
Prof Anirbid Sircar is a Head, Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy. Dr. Sircar graduated from IIT Kharagpur and did his Master of Technology and Ph.D from IIT-ISM Dhanbad on Reservoir Tomography. He has been actively involved in the exploration and exploitation activities of geothermal energy in Gujarat, India. He also has immense experience in the Applied Petroleum Exploration related activities. For the past three years he is working extensively in the field of City Gas Distribution. Dr. Sircar has about 26 years of industrial and academic experience. He is actively involved in teaching and research and has successfully guided 33 M. Tech projects and completed PhD for 8 students. At present 5 PhD students are working under him. He received Indira Gandhi SiromaniAward (2011), Bharat Vikash Award (2017), Venus Distinguished Faculty Award (2019). He has also authored two books; one in the field of CGD entitled “City Gas Distribution: An Indian Perspective” and other in the field of geothermal energy entitled “Harnessing Geothermal Energy: Applications in India”. He has 100 publications in national and international journals.
|Dr. Kriti Yadav
Dr. Kriti Yadav is a Coordinator in Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy, Pandit Deendayal Energy University. She has expertise in the field of Petroleum Exploration. Her current research projects are in the field of Geothermal Energy and City Gas Distribution. She has done her Ph.D in Geothermal Energy from Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE), Pandit Deendayal Energy University. She possesMasters Degree in Geology from Patna University. Her area of research for PhD is entitled-Geothermal Exploration and Exploitation techniques with special reference to Gujarat, India. She is an active researcher of the team involved in integration of Space Heating and Cooling plant with Organic Rankine Cycle for power generation at Dholera, Gujarat which is one of its kinds in India. She has authored several papers in national and international journals and conferences. She has also co-authored a book entitled “Harnessing Geothermal Energy: Applications in India”.
|Mrs. Namrata Bist
Mrs. Namrata is a petroleum engineer. She is currently a faculty in the School of Petroleum Technology, PDEU and works as a Research scientist in CEGE. She is pursuing her Ph.D. in Hybrid Geothermal & Solar energy and has active involvement in various activities of CEGE. In addition, She also has a rich assortment of work experience from reputed firms like Weatherford International and Infosys Ltd.
|Mr. Dharmesh Morabiya
Field Engineer, CEGE
Mr. Dharmesh is Diploma in Chemical Engineering. He joined CEGE as field engineer from March 2017. He has experience in handling the Space Heating and Cooling plant. He is also actively involved in the set of Organic Rankine Cycle at Dholera. He also have experience in geophysical data acquisition like gravity, magnetic, etc. He has also been a part of drilling of geothermal wells Dholera.
|Ms. Surbhi Singh|
Project Assistant, CEGE
Ms. Surbhi Singh is working as a Project Assistant in Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy. She has completed her Bachelors of Commerce from School of Liberal Studies, PDEU.
|Mr HitenKumar Bhatt|
Research Assistant , CEGE
Mr. Hitenkumar Bhatt has completed his mechanical engineering from Gujarat Technological University. He is currently working as a research assistant at the Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy.
|Mr. Abhishek Nair|
Research Assistant, CEGE
Mr. Abhishek Nair has completed Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from Gujarat Technological University in 2020. He is working as a research assistant at the Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE). He has hands-on experience in the design and production sectors. His current research deals with drilling and well completion at the prime geothermal hotspots in Gujarat.
|Mr. Deep Maru|
Research Assistant, CEGE
Mr. Deep Maru has completed Bachelor of Technology in Petroleum engineering from Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University in 2019. He is associated as a research assistant at Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy. He has hands on Experience in Geophysical instruments during academic such as Gravity Survey, Magnetic Survey, Resistivity survey, etc. His research area includes the direct applications and societal benefits of geothermal water. He is currently working on solar geothermal food dryer and desalination plant.
|Ms. Krishna Solanki|
Research Assistant, CEGE
Ms. Krishna Solanki is currently working as research assistant at Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy. She has completed her graduation in Chemical Engineering from Ahmedabad University and Post-graduation in Petroleum Exploration from Pandit Deendayal Energy University.
CEGE, since its inception, is carrying out extensive research in the area of geothermal exploration and exploitation. CEGE has completed exploration techniques such as Remote sensing studies, Geochemical studies, Magnetotelluric (MT) and Gravity survey to identify the location of geothermal reserves in three study areas namely Unai, Gandhar and Dholera.
Geothermal Energy : Indian Scenario
Geothermal energy exploration in India has long history. However, an extensive literature survey depicts that the efforts across India is not systematic. Remote sensing, Seismic, Gravity-Magnetic Survey, Electrical Resistivity and Magnetotelluric Surveys are the techniques normally used for exploration activity. Promising areas are identified in Himalayan area, Puga, Manikaran, Chhumatang, Beas and Satlej field, Chamoli, Western India. There have been efforts made by various organizations in exploration of this clean energy. Organizations likes NGRI and GSI are the leading forces behind such explorations for over four decades. However, no exploitation for domestic and commercial uses is known to the authors of this paper. Bore well drilling, identification of hot water source and measuring temperature gradient are the parameters considered by most of the researchers.
For further information contact:
|Dr. Kriti Yadav:
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN CEGE
GSI has identified seventeen active hot springs in Gujarat region. After a review of this data, Government of Gujarat (GoG) directed PDEU, through Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL), to conduct research and development activities on geothermal potential at these seventeen identified sites. Prefeasibility studies were conducted by PDEU, primarily through remote sensing and landsat imageries to narrow down on the potential study areas. Six sites were identified for conducting further investigation on geothermal resource potential, namely Dholera, Unai, Gandhar, Tuwa, Chabsar and Tulsishyam which are shown in the map below.
CEGE is carrying out exhaustive research in the investigative studies for analysing the resource potential of the above mentioned sites. CEGE has concentrated on three sites namely, Dholera, Gandhar and Unai for further investigation. Two sites i.e. Chabsar and Tuwa are being investigated upon by Institute of Seismological Research (ISR), Gandhinagar. Tulsishyam being a wild life area, was not considered for further studies.
CEGE has used techniques such as Geochemical studies, Magnetotelluric (MT) survey, and Gravity survey to identify the location of geothermal reserves in the study areas. 2D Magnetotelluric survey was carried out with the help of M/s PBG Geophysical Exploration Ltd., Poland at all the three locations (Unai, Gandhar and Dholera). The acquisition, processing and interpretation of MT data have depicted the subsurface picture reasonably well.
Solar Geothermal Hybridization:
Hybridization is an efficient, cost effective and environmentally conscious decision. Both geothermal and solar have high potential in similar geographical area and make up for each other`s disadvantages. This also accentuate the thermal efficiency of the renewable energy with very less operating expenditure and simple machinery.
a. Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC)
d. ADVANTAGES OF PTC
- Efficiency increase. Present target increase of 30 ºC may be expected.
- Efficient energy production.
- No Pollution and Global Warning Effects.
- Stand-alone geothermal efficiency is around 21% whereas Hybrid geothermal efficiency with solar is around 50%.
e. PROPSED DESIGN ASPECTS
- One parabolic trough will generate 0.8133 KW/ hr
- With help of four troughs 20 KW of electricity will be generated 6 hrs/day
- Industry : Acclaim technology services India private ltd.
- Cost of one trough : 40,000 - 50,000/-
3D Magnetotelluric Survey:
Based on 2D MT results, CEGE carried out 3D MT survey at Unai. 3D Magnetotelluric (MT) Survey has been done first time in India at Unai.
Drilling of Bore well:
On the basis of the results obtained from exploration surveys two wells A01 and A02 are drilled in Dholera Swaminarayan Temple up to the depth of the 1000 ft. The hot water is gushing out of the mother earth with the flow rate of about 5 to 6 lit/sec and temperature is 45oC. The subsurface temperature gradient is 3.5oC/100m.
Space Heating and Cooling System at Dholera, Gujarat:
Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling system at Dholera is based on Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) instrument, a first of its kind in India. Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE), Pandit Deendayal Energy University (PDEU) have developed this system in association with Green India Building System and Services (GIBSS).
This system has been implemented at Dholera geothermal site, located in the Ahmedabad district in the Swaminarayan Temple. Based on various exploration techniques, two geothermal bore wells were drilled at Dholera on October 28, 2015 and January 31, 2016 respectively of 1000 feet depth. The temperature of the water is 47 to 50 degree Celsius, with a flow rate of seven to eight litters per second. The water is produced from the well without any external energy.
Geothermal Heat Pump or Ground Source Heat pump is one such method, which can be used to utilize the energy from the low enthalpy reservoir. The geothermal space heating and cooling system consists of heat exchanging device at both condenser and evaporator side of the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). The heat pump is a device, which is designed in such a way that it provides heating and cooling system simultaneously using geothermal energy as a source. The heat pump consists of four components namely evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve. Evaporator (cooling side) of the heat pump is utilized for comfort cooling to assembly Hall at the temple. The output from Condenser (heating side) of the heat pump will be utilized as an input to Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for power generation at pilot scale. The system is producing cooling of 32 TR capacities at the Sabhamandap (Assembly Hall) of the temple as an additional benefit. The heat pump system is highly energy efficient and eco-friendly system with minimum usage of water and optimum requirement of electricity.
The geothermal space heating and cooling system will help in replacing conventional air conditioning systems, water cooling systems and water heating systems in highly energy efficient manner. In this system, the consumption of electricity is reduced and financial benefits can be achieved in the long run. The capital expenditure of such systems is high, however, due to lesser operational expenditure; it will be commercially beneficial in the long run. The payback period varies based on the size of the system, applicability, usage and ambient atmosphere. Additionally, the system being a closed loop system, huge amounts of water will be saved. The system doesn't emit any kind of greenhouse gases as well.
The hot water produced from the system can also be utilized in some of the other direct applications such as green houses, ice melting, fish farming, crop drying, capsicum and tomato cultivation and spa/domestic purposes, whereas the cold water produced can be utilized in cold storages and process cooling in commercial and industrial applications.
|Benefits of the system:
Reduced water consumption
Reduced carbon dioxide emission
Reduced carbon footprints
20 to 50% Energy Savings
100% water savings
No chemical usage
Inauguration of the System
The inauguration ceremony of the plant was held on 13 December, 2016 at 4:30 PM at Swaminarayan Temple, Dholera, Gujarat. Honourable Minister Shri Bhupendra Singh Chudasama [Minister of Revenue, Education (Primary, Secondary and Adult), Higher and Technical Education, Legislative and Parliamentary affairs] was the Chief Guest in the event. The system was inaugurated by him at 5:00 PM in the evening as he cut the ribbon and unveiled the foundation stone. The ribbon cutting ceremony was followed by inaugural session in the Sabha Mandap of the Swaminarayan Temple. The hall was air cooled by the Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling system. Dr. T. K. K. Reddy, Director General, PDEU, Dr Anirbid Sircar, School of Petroleum Technology and Head-CEGE, faculty members from PDEU and entire team CEGE were present during the event. Function also witnessed various esteem guests from industries like ONGC Energy Centre New Delhi, and Green India Building System and Services (GIBSS), Mumbai and Saket Engineering, Vadodara and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India.
Shri Bhupendra Sinh Chudasama congratulated the entire team for the remarkable success of the project. He also appreciated the overall efforts of the entire team of CEGE. He also appreciated the academic benefits generated through this project.
Inauguration of Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling System by Hon’ble Minister Shri Bhupendrasinh Chudasama (Chief Guest of the Event)
Organic Rankine Cycle: Power generation:
The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system involves the same component as in a conventional steam power plant i.e. a boiler (heat exchanger/evaporator), a work producing expansion device (turbine), a condenser (cooling towers) and a feed pump.
Schematic of an Organic Rankine Cycle
After successful commissioning of the Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling plant at Dholera, CEGE is focussing on pilot scale electricity using Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The Geothermal Space Heating and Cooling system based on Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system will be integrated with the ORC system in a unique way. The output of the GSHP system will be used as the input for the ORC system. The geothermal power generated through the ORC system will be first of its kind in India. After the successful project on a pilot scale, the system can be replicated on a commercial level.
ORC systems are used for power generation from water flowing at low temperature. The ORC system uses an organic fluid with low boiling point than that of water. The minimum required temperature of the flowing water is 77 to 80 degree Celsius. The GSHP system is designed in such a way that the output of the heating side of the system is 80 degree Celsius. This output will be used as an input to the ORC.
Geothermal Energy for Societal Benefits:
Apart from power generation, CEGE is exploring the possibilities of utilising the low enthalpy geothermal water for various direct applications.
In India, the geothermal fields are of low enthalpy in nature compared to other part of the world. However, the direct applications of geothermal can be taken into consideration for low enthalpy geothermal fields in India, as these applications require relatively low temperature to function. Some of the direct applications are milk pasteurisation, fish farming, crop drying, green house, agriculture, sericulture, and balneology. If the shallow geothermal well at Unai is successful, the hot water generated from the well will be utilised for different direct applications based on the local conditions.
CEGE is planning to drill 1000 ft. Deep bore well in Unai geothermal field. The well parameters will be similar to Dholera geothermal wells A01 and A02. The drilling activity will be carried out at the best possible location identified based on the results of 2D and 3D magnetotelluric survey, gravity survey, remote sensing and geochemical analysis. If the geothermal well is successful, the hot water produced from the well will be utilised for direct applications of geothermal energy.
The Unai field is surrounded by rural areas with the population largely dependent on agriculture and cattle-rearing. Additionally, Unai site is located in vicinity of a dense forest area with different varieties of vegetation and cultivated land. Hence, in this region, applications related to agriculture, green houses and animal husbandry can be implemented in the area.
Balneology- From centuries the geothermal water is used for bathing and treatment of skin dieses.The systems like steam bathing and spas are also utilising the geothermal energy for providing heat and steam. These types of system also lead to some of the health benefits like improvement in blood circulation, in cleaning and skin rejuvenation, relief in muscle tension and enhancing detoxification processes.In Dholera a bathing kund is formed in Swaminarayan temple where people from nearby villages use it for bathing and domestic purposes.
Honey Processing- CEGE has formed an integrated extractor- processor assembly for honey processing using geothermal water. The following steps were performed during processing.
Milk Pasteurization- CEGE is planning to set up a milk pasteurization plant at Dholera.As there is no milk pasteurization plant near Dholera people of Dholera and nearby villages can use benefits of this plant.Milk pasteurization plant will use the discharged water from Space Heating and Cooling plant.Designing of milk pasteurization plant is under process in Dholera where the residual water of 80oC is used.
Food Dryer Article:
Geothermal energy is initiating in India, with several explorations and exploitation. This energy was formed around 4 billion years ago due to the fusion process. Around 155 million tons of food products are produced in India. To overcome the grain losses due to storing and harvesting a food drying system can be made for the preservation of crops. In India, around 60-80% of farmers use a sun-dry method which is not an appropriate way for grain drying, which leads to loss of needful minerals or vitamins for the human body. CEGE is working in direct application sectors of geothermal energy. After honey processing & balneology, CEGE is going to set up a food dryer in Unai.
The system works in 3 stages: 1) In the initial stage, the geothermal water is pumped and stored in the tank, 2) in the next stage, the geothermal water is circulated to a heat exchanger where the heat gets exchanged with the heat pump. 3) And in the final stage, the heat from the heat pump is passed into the chamber for drying food products that are placed on the stainless steel trays.
INDUSTRY - ACADEMIA COLLABORATION
MoU signing with six Organization in 3rd International Conference
- Signing of MoU with Iceland Geo Survey (ISOR)
- Signing of MoU with ONGC Energy Centre
- Signing of MoU with Geo Syndicate Power P. Ltd.
- Signing of MoU with LREDA-LAHDC
- Signing of MoU with Arya Drillers
- Signing of MoU with JKSPDC
• CEGE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with ONGC Energy Centre (OEC) for efficient technology and knowledge sharing on 18th June 2015. ONGC Energy Centre (OEC) functions under the aegis of the ONGC Energy Centre Trust, which was, set up by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, (ONGC), established under Indian Trust Act on August 8, 2005. ONGC Energy Centre Trust is a research and technology development centre, engaged in research of various renewable and clean energy options, specifically focusing on projects which have the potential to make an impact on India’s energy scenario. The Centre also aims to pursue projects till demonstration for commercialization.
• CEGE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Green Green India Building Systems and Services (GIBSS).CEGE, PDEU is working in collaboration with M/S GIBSS, to design the pilot project on Space Heating/Cooling and demonstration of the efficacy of heat pumps in increasing and decreasing the temperature of geothermal water for societal benefits. The dual purpose system device (acceptance and rejection of heat) will be first of its kind in India. The success of the pilot project, will pave a way for the electricity generation which will require some more studies on turbines, evaporators and condensers.
• CEGE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Dedan Kimathi University of Technology (DKUT), Kenya. CEGE team visited Kenya to understand various technologies related to geothermal exploration strategies and geothermal power generation in Kenya. CEGE team also visited different geothermal fields in Kenya including Olkaria Geothermal Field, which is one of the prominent geothermal in Kenya. CEGE is looking forward to work with DKUT for various geothermal projects in future.
ACADEMIC BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT
Apart from commercial success, this project has a lot of research prospects linked to it. Many students and budding academicians are associated with the project. CEGE organizes field visits, workshops and trainings for students to give them a hands-on learning experience on various software and instruments used in the project for data acquisition and processing.
- CEGE has presented paper in2017, 2018, 2019 & papers are also accepted for 2020 in Stanford University.
- CEGE team have visited Stanford University to attend and present papers on Utilization of Abandoned Coal Mines as a Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resource and Subsequent Energy Exploitation and Space Heating and Cooling Application Based on Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoirs with a Focus on Indian Subcontinent at 42nd Stanford Geothermal Workshop, 2017.
- Sircar, Anirbid, Kamakshi Rayavarapu, Namrata Bist, Kriti Yadav, and Surbhi Singh. "Applications of nanoparticles in enhanced oil recovery." Petroleum Research (2021).
- Prankada, Milendra, Kriti Yadav, and Anirbid Sircar. "Analysis of wellbore stability by pore pressure prediction using seismic velocity." Energy Geoscience 2, no. 4 (2021): 219-228.
- Shah, Manan, Anirbid Sircar, Vrutang Shah, and Yashraj Dholakia. "Geochemical and Geothermometry study on hot-water springs for understanding prospectivity of low enthalpy reservoirs of Dholera Geothermal field, Gujarat, India." Solid Earth Sciences (2021).
- Sircar, Anirbid, Kriti Yadav, Kamakshi Rayavarapu, Namrata Bist, and Hemangi Oza. "Application of machine learning and artificial intelligence in oil and gas industry." Petroleum Research (2021).
- Shah, Manan, Aditya Radia, Vrutang Shah, and Anirbid Sircar. "A comprehensive study on modeling methods for gauging of resources in a geothermal reservoirs." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment (2021): 1-14.
- Sircar, Anirbid, Kriti Yadav, Kamakshi Rayavarapu, and Namrata Bist. "Genetic-based Monte Carlo Modeling of geothermal prospects: Indian examples." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment (2021): 1-16.
- Yadav, Kriti, and Anirbid Sircar. "Modeling parameters influencing city gas distribution sector based on factor analysis method." Petroleum Research (2021).
- Yadav, Apurwa, Kriti Yadav, and Anirbid Sircar. "Feedforward Neural Network for joint inversion of geophysical data to identify geothermal sweet spots in Gandhar, Gujarat, India." Energy Geoscience 2, no. 3 (2021): 189-200.
- Yadav, Kriti, and Anirbid Sircar. "Modelling of earth’s geothermal subtle traps using gravity Euler deconvolution." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment (2021): 1-9.
- Bist, Namrata, Anirbid Sircar, Abhijit Nirantare, and Kriti Yadav. "A heuristic modeling of solar-assisted earth’s geothermal power production capacity." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment 7, no. 2 (2021): 683-693.
- Bist, N., A. Sircar, and K. Yadav. "Thermal zone identification by gravity data modeling using Euler deconvolution and geochemical analysis of hot springs in Saurashtra and Cambay Basins." Indian Journal of Science and Technology 14, no. 26 (2021): 2189-2205.
- Yadav, Kriti, Anirbid Sircar, and Apurwa Yadav. "Geothermal Energy and Climate Change Mitigation." India: Climate Change Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries (2021): 243. – Book chapter
- Bist, Namrata, Anirbid Sircar, and Kriti Yadav. "Holistic review of hybrid renewable energy in circular economy for valorization and management." Environmental Technology & Innovation (2020): 101054.
- BIST, Namrata, Gautami TRIPATHI, Anirbid SIRCAR, and Kriti YADAV. "Artificial Intelligence Based Optimizing Solutions for the Geothermal Power Plants."
- Bist, N., A. Nirantare, and A. Sircar. "Modeling and Performance Prediction of Solar Parabolic Trough Collector for Hybrid Geothermal Power Generation: A Case Study of Dholera, Gujarat, India."
- Mali, Nilesh, Anirbid Sircar Dr Kriti Yadav Abhijit, and Nirantare Namrata Bist. "Design architecture for direct application of geothermal energy." (2021).
- Mali, Nilesh, Abhijit NIRANTARE, Kriti YADAV, Anirbid SIRCAR, Namrata BIST, and Surbhi SINGH. "A Review of Integration of Solar-Geothermal System with the Thermal Energy Storage System."
- Prajapati M., Shah M., Soni B., Parikh S., Sircar A., Balchandani S., Thakore S., and Tala M., 2020, “Geothermal-solar integrated groundwater desalination system: Current status and future perspective”, Groundwater for Sustainable Development, Elsevier, pp. 1-19.
- Yadav K., Shah M. and Sircar A., 2020, “Application of magnetotelluric (MT) study for the identification of shallow and deep aquifers in Dholera geothermal region”, Groundwater for Sustainable Development, Elsevier, Vol. 11, pp. 1-18 (Scopus, Q1).
- Sircar A., Thander B. and Yadav K., 2020, “Stochastic Modelling of Earth’s Hydrocarbon Resources using Artificial Neural Network”, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, Springer, Vol. 6(6), pp. 1-16. (Scopus)
- Bist N., Sircar A. & Yadav K., 2020. ‘Holistic review of hybrid renewable energy in circular economy for valorization and management ', Environmental Technology and Innovation, pp. 1080, jul 2020
- Bist N. & Sircar A.,2020. ‘Hybdrid Geothermal and Solar Setup for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoirs: A Case Study from Gujarat, India', Stanford University, pp. 1-14, apr 2020
- Bist N. & Sircar A.,2020.Utilizing oil and gas industries' capabilities in exploring deep supercritical geothermal reservoir rocks', 8th European Geothermal Workshop, EGW, Oct 2020
- Bist N. & Sircar A.,2020. 'Hybrid Solar & Geothermal setup for exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs', 4th International Geothermal Conference, Centre of Excellence for Geothermal energy, jan 2020
- Bist, N., Sircar, A., Nirantare, A. and Yadav, K., 2020. A heuristic modeling of solar-assisted earth’s geothermal power production capacity. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, pp.1-11.
- Bist, N., Nirantare, A. and Sircar, A., Modeling and Performance Prediction of Solar Parabolic Trough Collector for Hybrid Geothermal Power Generation: A Case Study of Dholera, Gujarat, India.
- Sircar, A., Yadav, K., Bist, N., Nirantare, A. and Mali,. N., 2020. Energy and Exergy assessments of Organic Rankine Cycle. DEW, pp. 41-50.
Papers Published in Peer Reviewed Journals/Conferences:
- Yadav K. and Sircar A., 2019, “Selection of Selection of working fluid for low enthalpy heat source Organic Rankine Cycle in Dholera, Gujarat, India”, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Elsevier, SCOPUS, Q1
- Yadav K. and Sircar A., 2019, “Application of Low Enthalpy Geothermal fluid for space heating and cooling, honey processing and milk pasteurization”, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Elsevier, SCOPUS, Q1
- Bhavarth S, Bhagyesh K, Jyoti S, Meet S, Priyansh B, Tanay B, Manan S*, Anirbid S (2019)Reckoning of water quality for irrigation and drinking purposes in the konkan geothermal provinces, Maharashtra, India
- Yadav K. and Sircar A., 2019, "Integrated 2D joint inversion models of gravity, magnetic, and MT for geothermal potentials: a case study from Gujarat, India", Modeling Earth System and Environment, Vol. 5, pp 1-21, Web of Science
- Sircar A., Shah M., Sahajpal S., Vaidya D., Dhale S. and Chaudhary A., 2015, “Geothermal Exploration in Gujarat: Case Study from Dholera”, Vol. 3, pp. 1-25
- Sircar A., Shah M. and Sharma S., 2016, “Selection of Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycle by Energy and Exergy, For Low Temperature Low Enthalpy Dholera Geothermal Reservoir”, Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering, Vol. 3, pp. 1-10
- Sircar A., Shah M., Vaidya D., Dhale S., Sahajpal S., Yadav K., Garg S., Sarkar P., Sharma D., Mishra T., and Shukla Y., “Performance Simulation of Ground Source Heat Pump System based on Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems”, Nanotechnology for Energy and Water, Springer Proceedings in Energy, Chapter 7
- Sircar A., Chandra S., Shah M., “Utilization of Geo-Solar Hybrid System for Efficient Power Production in India” Nanotechnology for Energy and Water, Springer Proceedings in Energy ,Chapter 28.
- Shah M., Vaidya D. and Sircar A., 2018, “Using Monte Carlo Simulation to Estimate Geothermal Resource in Dholera geothermal field, Gujarat, India”, Springer Multiscale and Multidisciplinary, Experiments and Design, pp. 1-13, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41939-018-008-x
- Sircar A., Sahajpal S., and Yadav K., 2016, “A review on Organic Rankine Cycle: Application to Geothermal Energy”, Dew Journal.
- Sircar A., Shah M., Vaidya D., Dhale S., Sahajpal S., and Yadav K., “2D and 3D Magnetotelluric (MT) Survey for Geothermal Reservoir Identification at Unai Geothermal Field, India", Dew journal (UGC approved journal).
- Sircar A., Shah M., Vaidya D., Dhale S., Sahajpal S., Yadav K., Garg S., Sarkar P., Sharma D., Mishra T., and Shukla Y., “Performance Simulation of Ground Source Heat Pump System based on Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems”, Emerging trends in Chemical Engineering, Vol. 4(1), pp. 29-39.
- Sircar A., Chandra S., Shah M., “Utilization of Geo-Solar Hybrid System for Efficient Power Production in India” Nanotechnology for Energy and Water, Springer Proceedings in Energy,Chapter 28
Papers Presented in National/ International Conferences:
- Balar V, Shah K, Shah M, Sircar A and Chandra S., (2019) Modeling and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Plant Based on Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Balar V, Shah K, Shah M, Sircar A and Chandra S., (2019) Integrated Direct and Indirect Uses of Geothermal Reserves - A Case Study of Gandhar Oil Field, Gujarat, India, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Shah V, Dudhat K, Shah M, Sircar A and Chandra S., (2019) Utilization of Geothermal-solar Hybrid Concept for Efficient Power Production, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Yadav K and Sircar A., (2019) Assessment of Geothermal Energy Resource in Unai, Gujarat, India, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Shingala J, Vora N, Shah M and Sircar A., (2019) Dual String Drilling: A Novel Approach Towards the Geothermal Well Application, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Patel D, Thakar V, Shah M and Sircar A., (2019) Identifying Casing While Drilling (CWD) Potential in Geothermal Scenario Along with Economics, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Thakkar A, Raval A, Shah M and Sircar A., (2019) Application of Fibres in Geothermal Well Cements, 44th Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2019, Stanford University, California.
- Shah M, Vaidya D, Sircar A and Sahajpal S., (2017) Utilization of Abandoned Coal Mines as a Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resource and Subsequent Energy Exploitation, 42nd Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2017, Stanford University, California.
- Vaidya D, Shah M, Sircar A and Sahajpal S., (2017) Space Heating and Cooling Application Based on Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoirs with a Focus on Indian Subcontinent, 42nd Stanford Geothermal Workshop 2017, Stanford University, California.
- Sircar, A., and Sahajpal, S., (2015), “Geothermal Investigation in Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India”, 2nd Annual International Conference on Earth and Environmental Sciences, June 2015, Athens, Greece, ISSN 2241-2891. (The Paper was adjudged as the Best Paper of the conference)
- Sircar, A., Sahajpal, S., Singh, A., Vaidya, D., Shah, M., Dhale, S., (2015), Exploration of Geothermal Resources in Gujarat, India, International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration & Exploitation, May 2015, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
- Sircar, A., Dhale, S., Vaidya, D., Sahajpal, S., Singh, A., Shah, M. and Yadav K., (2016), Exploration and Exploitation of Geothermal Resources in Gujarat, India, 2nd International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration & Exploitation, March 2016, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
- Sircar Anirbid and Yadav Kriti, 2017, Harnessing of Geothermal Energy: Applications in India, Technology Publishers , ISBN:81-901767-5-7,Pages:184.
- Geothermal Heating and Cooling System. By Mr. Manan Shah, Mr. DwijenVaidya, Dr.Anirbid Sircar, Ms.Shreya Sahajpal and Ms.Shubhra Dhale
Gravimeter and Magnetometer Training
- Basic principles of Gravity survey for exploration and data processing and Magnetometer Training were given
- Attended by M.Tech Petroleum Exploration Students and CEGE Team.
- Integration of Organic Rankine Cycle with Space Heating and Cooling Plant.
- Training to each CEGE member for running the plant by ENOGIA- The small Turbine ORC Company, France
- Training was given by Mr. Richard from Scintrex, Canada, a renowned expert in geophysics and geology field
- Attended by CEGE team and SPT students
- Basic principles of Gravity survey for exploration and data processing and gravity corrections
- Attended by CEGE team and SPT students
GPS and DGPS training
- DGPS helps in understanding the elevation and soil stability which is essential for Gravity survey
- Differential GPS has more accuracy than GPS which is 0.3 cm.
Magnetotelluric (MT) Training
- Training was given by Dr. B.B. Bhattacharya, a renowned expert in EM field
- Basics of Magnetotelluric (MT) Survey for Geothermal Exploration
- Data Acquisition methodology (Orientation of the coils, porous pots etc.)
- Laying out of geophones and cables
- Understanding the concept of shallow refraction seismic
- Mapping of earth layers till ground water level
Field Visit to Dholera
Field visit to Tulsishyam hot spring
A group of students visited Tulsishyam hot spring in order to understand geology and geochemical analysis of the hot spring of Tulsishyam.
Field Visit for Gravity Survey
Visit to Unai and Dholera geothermal location to acquire Gravity data.
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / WORKSHOPS
Webinar on Geothermal Energy: Geothermal as a Green Energy
21th January, 2021
Webinar on Roadmap for Indian Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation
28th August, 2020
Webinar on “Roadmap of Indian Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation “ successfully conducted on 28th Aug, 2020 oraganised by Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy - CEGE, PDEU. The eminent keynote speakers for the event were Gudni Axelsson, Director , UNESCO GRO-GTP program & Kunzes Dolma Women in Geothermal – WING India Ambassador and Research Fellow, UNESCO GRO-GTP.
In today's world scenario, increasing environmental pollution and deteriorating conventional resources, it is prudent to explore and establish alternate and sustainable sources of energy for human energy needs. Because of these situations arising, many countries are involving themselves in the large scale exploration work in this field of geothermal where a great number of prospects are evolving. Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy wanted to create a unique platform for Geothermal Energy in India where it can initiate to put forward plethora of ideas from experienced experts for inquisitive mind. The delegates will have unique opportunity to experience how geothermal utilization is necessary in today's circumstances.
3rd International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation
17th January, 2018
The International Conference on Geothermal Energy (2018) is organized by Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE), Pandit Deendayal Energy University (PDEU) in partnership with the Embassy of Iceland in New Delhi. This conference will provide a unique platform where experts from different spectra of geothermal fraternity will be discussing issues and challenges in geothermal exploration and exploitation
2nd International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation
29th March, 2016
Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE), Pandit Deendayal Energy University, organized 2nd International Conference on “Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation”, on 29th March 2016, with an objective of discussing techniques involved in exploration and exploitation of Geothermal Energy.
The conference was organised in association with Energy and Petrochemicals Department (EPD) and Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd. (GPCL). The principle sponsor and knowledge partner for the conference were ONGC Energy Centre (OEC), New Delhi and Drilling and Exploration World (DEW) Journal respectively. The event was also supported by the Aimil Limited, New Delhi; PetroViz, New Delhi; Petroleum Federation of India (PetroFed); PBG Geophysical Exploration Limited, Poland; Saket Engineering, Vadodara and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)- PDEU Students Chapter.
The highlight of the event was the Round Table Discussion during the conference. This session was organized to discuss the burning issues and challenges related to exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy in India. Many professionals from power industry, geothermal sector from India and abroad participated in the session. Professionals from IIT, ONGC Energy Centre, GIBSS, GSI, NGRI etc. showed an active participation in the round table discussion. Many key issues were discussed during the session related to exploitation of geothermal energy. The discussion covered topics such as ‘Lack in confidence on sustainability and commercial feasibility of geothermal resources in India’.
International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation
1st May, 2015
CEGE organized an International Conference on Geothermal Energy: Exploration and Exploitation on 1st May, 2015 at PDEU Campus. The key focus of the conference was bringing industry professionals, researchers, scientists, geothermal experts, policy makers, academicians and students onto a single platform in order to discuss the issues and challenges in exploration and exploitation of Geothermal Energy.
The conference was organised in association with Energy and Petrochemicals Department (EPD) and Gujarat Power Corporation Ltd. (GPCL). The principle and associate sponsors for the conference were ONGC Energy Centre (OEC), New Delhi and Saket Engineering, Vadodara respectively. The event was also supported by the Petroleum Federation of India (PetroFed).
The event was highly successful as the event was attended by many eminent researchers, industry professionals, policy makers and representatives of government organizations and academic fraternity. The event was fruitful in terms on knowledge sharing and technical discussions.
The highlight of the event was the Round Table Session at the end of the conference. This session was organized to discuss the burning issues and challenges related to geothermal energy scenario in India. All the stake holders of geothermal energy in India and guests from abroad participated in the session. Many key issues were discussed during the session.
The event was covered by leading local and national dailies on the next day. The conference was covered by DNA, Divya Bhaskar, Gujarat Samachar, Rajasthan Patrika and Navgujart Samay (ToI Group), which is a huge achievement for the centre and the university as well.
3rd March 2015
Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE) organized a Geothermal Workshop on 3rd March 2015. The objective of the workshop was to discuss the best possible location for drilling of parametric well. CEGE hosted experts from academics as well as industry. Drilling, Production and Electrical experts from ONGC and GSPC had joined. Magnetotelluric (MT) experts from ISR, PBG and ISM were also present and a detailed discussion was carried out on MT survey conducted by various agencies.
International Geothermal Seminar
26th July, 2013
CEGE organized an International Geothermal Seminar on Geothermal Energy Initiative & Development on 26th July, 2013. The seminar provided an opportunity for industies, academicians, researchers and geothermal experts from all parts of the world to contribute towards the development of geothermal energy. Experts shared their valuable views and experience on a wide range of topics related to successful implementation of geothermal power projects.
The seminar witnessed talks on interesting topics related to ‘Trends & Challenges in Geothermal Exploration’, ‘Sustainable Geothermal Utilization’ and ‘Analysis and Case Studies on Geothermal Systems’. The seminar was attended by industry representatives across India and abroad, academicians, government officials and students of PDEU.
News & Announcements
Dr. Kriti Yadav, second women from India in UNESCO GRO GTP program.
She is associated with CEGE, PDPU.
CEGE employee presenting on home country seminar at GRO-GTP, 2021 program in ISOR, Reykjavik, Iceland
Field visit to Mid-Atlantic Ridge tectonic plate boundary which separates the Eurasian and the North American plates.
CEGE employee at Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plant during field visit of GRO-GTP, 2021 Programe. The Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plant is located south of Hengill and produces hot water and electricity. The plant was launched in 2006 and has a capacity of 200 MW in thermal power and 303 MW in electricity.
CEGE employee at the Reykjanes Power station and district heating plant. The Reykjanes Power Station is a geothermal power station located in Reykjanes at the southwestern tip of Iceland. As of 2012, the power plant generates 100MWe from two 50MWe turbines, using steam and brine from a reservoir at 290 °C to 320 °C, which is extracted from 12 wells that are 2700m deep.
Applications are invited for the post of Research Associateat Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy, Pandit Deendayal Energy University.
We require young, dedicated and result oriented personnel to work towards the development of the centre.
Qualification: Research Associate: - B.Tech, B.E. (Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal)
Designation: Research Associate (On Contract)
- Designing various power generation cycles using geothermal energy namely Kalina Cycle, CO2 Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Modified Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) etc.
- Knowledge of Hybridization in solar with geothermal energy
- Thermal Engineering knowledge and hands on experience in thermodynamic of fluid flow through porous media.
- Knowledge of simulation, vertical and horizontal integration.
- Flexibility and adaptability
- Organizational skills and the ability to multitask.
- The ability to be proactive and take the initiative.
Key Responsibility Areas:
- Designing of Power Generation Cycles.
- Collection and analyzation of Geothermal Data
- Simulation of Data.
- Drilling of wells and field visits.
Experience: 2-5 years of experience
Application: Send your detailed CV on the following contact details by the 20th December, 5:00 PM IST ::
- Dr. Kriti Yadav
Email ID: Kriti.firstname.lastname@example.org
Last Date of Application- December 20, 2019
In today's world scenario, increasing environmental pollution and deteriorating conventional resources, it is prudent to explore and establish alternate and sustainable sources of energy for human energy needs. Because of these situations arising, many countries are involving themselves in the large scale exploration work in this field of geothermal where a great number of prospects are evolving.
Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy wanted to create a unique platform for Geothermal Energy in India where it can initiate to put forward plethora of ideas from experienced experts for inquisitive mind. The delegates will have unique opportunity to experience how geothermal utilization is necessary in today's circumstances.